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A horse adjusts braking and pushing activities of both the hind and front legs, in respect to the body situation and the demand. For instance, if the demand is piaff, the hind leg on support will increase the braking activity in order to resist forward shift of the body over the forelegs. The forelimbs have a larger propulsive activity. In this matter, research studies suggest a new level of thinking. Elastic recoils of the tendons more than muscles move the legs. This energy is released when they return to their normal length.

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Meershoek and Anton J. The forelegs are often compared to a pogo stick designed to recoil to a certain intensity as well as frequency. When the stress induced on the spring of the pogo stick corresponds to the integrity of the spiral structure, the elastic recoil is optimum.

By contrast, when the weight overloads the integrity of the spring, the rebound is hindered. Each vertebra of the thoracolumbar spine has the capacity to convert the thrust generated by the hind legs into horizontal and vertical forces. Horizontal forces are transmitted horizontally from one vertebra to the next.

They are the forces creating forward displacement of the body. They are the forces resisting gravity and therefore creating balance control. Combined with the fact that forces traveling horizontally through the spine are submitted to the attraction of gravity, pelvis elevation that occurs at the push off of the hind legs, loads the forelegs at the anterior end of the thoracolumbar spine.

Later, James Rooney explained how the main back muscles, which are set in mirror image direction, convert the thrust generated by the hind legs into horizontal and vertical forces. Both Richard Tucker and James Rooney explored the equine vertebral column mechanism from a dynamic perspective.


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Based on their studies as well as the work of many others, we explored an equitation matching the biomechanical properties of human and equine vertebral column. Such supple resistance is achieved utilizing the cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures of the vertebral column. In advance three day event, a jumping combination that presents technical difficulties is referred to as a question.

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The question is also for the horse that has to combine athletic abilities, experience and creativity to resolve the challenge. Sometimes, the creativity that pulls the horse out of the question becomes an experience that the horse uses later to resolve another challenge. Such education is based on kindness and respect. Yet the main problems of life cannot be solved by men of science alone, or by artists and humanists: we need the cooperation of them all.

Science is always indispensable but never sufficient. We are hungry for beauty, and where charity is lacking nothing else is of avail. A horse brings his athletic abilities into the performance but also a central nervous system designed to protect a problem rather than work toward a better future. In a PhD you develop clear writing, reasoning, and communication abilities that are very useful in many areas. However, you will also need to spend much of your time gaining skills and knowledge that are very specialised to academic philosophy and not transferable to other areas.

If one completes a PhD in philosophy and then pursues a different career, it becomes very difficult to re-enter academia. In contrast, having worked outside of academia for a few years after your undergraduate studies is not in general counted negatively at the PhD application stage.

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This generates a very strong case, in our view, for exploring other career options before entering a PhD programme. All that said, a PhD in philosophy is an impressive credential. Because it is difficult to get into a strong programme and because it requires talent, grit, and hard work to complete, a PhD in philosophy is a strong general signal of aptitude and dedication. One unique reason for doing a philosophy PhD may be that it can help you think in a clearer and more critical way about important topics, including how you should live your life.

Which problems you choose to focus your career on radically affects the value you are able to add to the world. And in our view, the choice of which causes to support is highly dependent on which views in ethics you think get closest to the truth. However, this seems to be a relatively weak reason to do a philosophy PhD.

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For one thing, the evidence that studying philosophy improves critical thinking in particular more than other fields is lacking. And it is not considered appropriate to begin a PhD programme if you plan to leave after 2 years. The professional incentives you face as a philosopher rarely push you toward more socially impactful work. The main thing that helps your career in philosophy is publishing lots of rigorous papers arguing for theses that are novel, especially on topics that are interesting and intellectually challenging.

Seeking to do high-impact research means being less focused on doing work that is inherently interesting to others, novel, and intellectually impressive. Since these qualities are highly prized in philosophy, it may be especially hard to succeed professionally working on questions that are chosen for their practical importance. On the other hand, interest in and funding for global priorities research seems to be increasing.

This is particularly true at Oxford, which is unusually supportive of applied ethics and which houses the Global Priorities Institute and the Future of Humanity Institute , both of which employ and support global priorities researchers. But because it is a new field, the prospects for global priorities research elsewhere in academia are not as clear. Interest in philosophical research relevant to AI is also clearly growing. For example, the Cambridge-based Leverhulme Center for the Future of Intelligence supports philosophical research related to AI safety and ethics, and a new Institute for Ethics in Artificial Intelligence will be a major part of the forthcoming Schwarzman Centre for the Humanities at Oxford.

There also seems to be an increasing focus on social impact at the institutional level that may enhance incentives for highly practical research.

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The professional incentives around being a public intellectual are likewise murky. If you are very successful as a public intellectual, this seems to be good for your career as a philosopher; but getting there may be risky. People who do well in philosophy are very intellectually curious and are drawn to a philosophical way of thinking, which involves a willingness to think abstractly, to state arguments clearly and logically, to approach problems from new perspectives, and to challenge assumptions that most people take for granted.

Strong verbal and writing skills, as well as a capacity for independent research, are essential. For some sub-areas, you need strong quantitative reasoning skills as well. For a broader and more advanced introduction to topics in philosophy, you can read articles in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , which is an unusually comprehensive and well-respected online source for philosophical issues, positions, and debates.

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You can also listen to the 80, Hours Podcast episodes with Hilary Greaves , William MacAskill , and Amanda Askell to learn about their research and experience as professional philosophers working on global priorities research. Academic philosophy is still mostly male and mostly white, which may add challenges for women or people of colour, though active work is being done in the philosophical community to improve this.

However, we think two reasonable tests are the ability to write a high quality philosophical research paper and the ability to get into a top PhD programme. Try to write an original piece of philosophical research before graduate school — as a term paper for an advanced course, as part of an undergraduate thesis, or in your spare time.

If you can, work the piece into a thorough, polished research paper between 4, and 10, words — the length of a professional journal article — and discuss it with professors you know, especially any who are recently tenured or who are interested in high-impact research.


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Ask them to tell you honestly what they think. If they say that the piece has the potential to be published at some point in a respected journal, that is a good sign. If you are writing an undergraduate thesis, you also might also try submitting it to the undergraduate thesis prize offered by the Forethought Foundation for Global Priorities Research , which also offers funding opportunities for PhD students.

If you do decide to apply to PhD programmes, you can use this piece of writing, or a part of it, as your writing sample. Other indicators of personal fit for philosophy that you can look for before you begin a PhD include:. Some suggestions for how academics in general can assess their fit at different career stages can be found here. People who are able to enter a top PhD programme in philosophy are likely capable of doing well in a number of other careers, many of which have high expected impact and better chances of professional success. One area to consider is jobs in policy.

We think these careers are well worth considering for someone who wants to maximise their impact. Someone with the strong verbal skills needed to succeed in philosophy could likely succeed in many of the options in this area. Another path to consider is retraining to enter another academic field. If you did well in mathematics in high school as many philosophers did , then you may be able to enter economics or machine learning , which are two of our most recommended paths due to their relevance to global problems and their strong back-up options.

Based on this summary and a quick check with professional philosophers, salaries for philosophers in the US and UK seem to be roughly the following:. In general, you get paid more in the US than in the UK. Talk to professors and current graduate students who know your work about going into philosophy. They can help you get a sense of your chances of getting into a strong programme, as well as help you develop a plan for where and how to apply.

Your writing sample is the single most important part of your application.